Nanotechnology in Agriculture and Food Production

Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. Encompassing nanoscale science, engineering, and technology, nanotechnology involves imaging, measuring, modeling, and manipulating matter at this length scale.

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ABSTRACT

Agriculture provides food for humans,Nanotechnology in Agriculture and Food Production Articles directly and indirectly. Given the increasing world population, it is necessary to use the modern technologies such as bio and nanotechnologies in agricultural sciences. Nanotechnology has been defined as relating to materials, systems and processes which operate at a scale of 100 nanometers (nm) or less Nanotechnology has many applications in all stages of production, processing, storing, packaging and transport of agricultural products. Nanotechnology will revolutionize agriculture and food industry by novation new techniques such as: precision farming techniques, enhancing the ability of plants to absorb nutrients, more efficient and targeted use of inputs, disease detection and control diseases, withstand environmental pressures and effective systems for processing, storage and packaging. Efficiency of medicine increases by use of nano particle in animal sciences. Silver and iron nano particle are used in the treatment and disinfection of livestock and poultry. Levels of environment pollution can be evaluation quickly by nano smart dust and gas sensors.

INTRODUCTION

Importance of agriculture to all human societies is characterized more than ever with increasing world population. The first and most important need of every human is needs to food, and food supply for humans associated with agriculture directly and indirectly. Growth of the agricultural sector as a context for development objectives is seen as essential in developing countries. Now, after years of green revolution and decline in the agricultural products ratio to world population growth, it is obvious the necessity of employing new technologies in the agriculture industry more than ever. Modern technologies such as bio and nanotechnologies can play an important role in increasing production and improving the quality of food produced by farmers. Many believe that modern technologies will secure growing world food needs as well as deliver a huge range of environmental, health and economic advantages (Wheeler, 2005). Food security has always been the biggest concern of the mankind. Nations, communities and governments have been struggling with the issue since long. Recent decades have seen even bigger challenges on this front. The future looks even bleaker with food shortage issue looming large. The challenge is how to feed the growing population by producing more on a stagnant or shrinking landscape; with lesser input costs and with lesser hazards to the eco-system. (Anonymous, 2009). In between,

nanotechnology has proved its place in agricultural sciences and related industries, as an interdisciplinary technology and a pioneer in solve problems and lacks. Nanotechnology has many applications in all stages of production, processing, storing, packaging and transport of agricultural products. The use of nanotechnology in agriculture and forestry will likely have environmental benefits (Froggett, 2009). Farm applications of nanotechnology are also commanding attention. Nano materials are being developed that offer the opportunity to more efficiently and safely administer pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers by controlling precisely when and where they are released (Kuzma and VerHage, 2006). Nanotechnology as a new powerful technology has the ability to create massive changes in food and agricultural systems. Nanotechnology is able to introduce new tools for use in cellular and molecular biology and new materials to identify plant pathogens. Hitherto numerous applications of nanotechnology in agriculture, food and animal sciences, has been proposed. Use of nanotechnology in agriculture and food industry can revolutionize the sector with new tools for disease detection, targeted treatment,

enhancing the ability of plants to absorb nutrients, fight diseases and withstand environmental pressures and effective systems for processing, storage and packaging. Nanotechnology has provided new solutions to problems in plants and food science (post-harvest products) and offers new approaches to the rational selection of raw materials, or the processing of such materials to enhance the quality of plant products (Sharon et al., 2010). Smart sensors and smart delivery systems will help the agricultural industry combat viruses and other crop pathogens. In the near future nanostructured catalysts will be available which will increase the efficiency of pesticides and herbicides allowing lower doses to be used. Nanotechnology will also protect the environment indirectly through the use of alternative (renewable) energy supplies, and filters or catalysts to reduce pollution and clean-up existing pollutants (Joseph and Morrison, 2006).Nanotechnology as a powerful technology allows us to have a look at the atomic and molecular level,

and able to create nanometer-scale structures. Nanotechnology in agriculture and food production, causing the agricultural land returned to its normal position, greenhouse construction with high performance and productivity, prevent extinction and destruction of plants and animals species, and overall nanotechnology provides the efficiency of the agricultural for higher population. In the agricultural sector, nanotechnology research and development is likely to facilitate and frame the next stage of development of genetically modified crops, animal production inputs, chemical pesticides and precision farming techniques. Precision agriculture means that there is a system controller for each growth factor such as nutrition, light, temperature, etc. Available Information for planting and harvest time are controlled by satellite systems.

This system allows the farmer to know, when is the best time for planting and harvesting to avoid of encountering bad weather conditions. Best time to achieve the highest yield, best use of fertilizers, irrigation, lighting and temperature are all controlled by these systems. An important nanotechnology role is the use of sensitive nuclear links in GPS systems controller. While nano-chemical pesticides are already in use, other applications are still in their early stages, and it may be many years before they are commercialized. These applications are largely intended to address some of the limitations and challenges facing large-scale, chemical and capital intensive farming systems. This includes the fine-tuning and more precise micromanagement of soils; the more efficient and targeted use of inputs; new toxin formulations for pest control; new crop and animal traits; and the diversification and differentiation of farming practices and products within the context of large-scale and highly uniform systems of production (Kumar, 2009). The relationship between nanotechnology and agricultural sciences can be investigated in the following fields: Need for security in agricultural and nutritional systems; intelligent systems for preventing and treating of plant diseases; creating new tools for progress in cellular and biological research; recycling waste obtained from agricultural. By using nanotechnology, plant growth ability increases and the best harvest time is determined to achieve the highest performance. In recent decades, agricultural land and soil pollution with hazardous elements and compounds present in industrial and urban wastewater are the most important factors that limiting crop and food production in the world. Nanostructured catalysts are able to eliminate the harmful components of agricultural ecosystems as a safe. This topic is importance in point of view of physiological plant diseases; eliminate food poisoning, organic products and finally production of healthier products. This nanotechnology application will help to reduce pollution and to make agriculture more environmentally friendly with use of nano filters for industrial waste water treatment, nano powders for gas pollutants treatment, and nano tubes for storage clean hydrogen fuel (Anonymous, 2009).

What is nanotechnology science?

Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary field that has be